Ion Channels Course

Visitor of the Week: Sheenah Bryant

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Meet Sheenah Bryant of Central Michigan University. Sheenah is an adjunct research faculty member in Ute Hochgeschwender’s lab, and a proud single mom and Native American. She is on campus for the Ion Channels in Synaptic and Neural Circuit Physiology course where she has been expanding her expertise in generalized ion channel regulation.

What are your research interests? What are you working on?
I am interested in studying the mechanisms of neural circuit formation in development. I hope to characterize changes inneurons resulting from neural hyperactivity during development, and the changes in neural circuit trajectories that control adult behavior.

How did decide to make this the focus of your research?
My dissertation focused on characterizing individual cell membrane proteins. Near the end of my doctoral work, I was introduced to novel method of neural control during a lightning talk by a member of my postdoctoral PI's lab. Those two minutes inspired me with many fundamental questions about neurons, and even our brain, that could be studied by controlling neural activity using bioluminescence-driven optogenetics. I knew immediately that this was the work I wanted to dedicate my research career to.

How did your scientific journey begin?
I have loved the creative curiosity of science since I was very young.  As a Native American and also a single mother, my path thus far has been filled with challenges of doubt and sacrifice, and great reward. I feel passionately that pursuing my dreams as a developmental neuroscientist will inspire my children and the Native American students I meet throughout my career, to pursue their dreams regardless of how unknown or difficult the journey may seem.

Was there something specific about the Ion Channels in Synaptic and Neural Circuit Physiology course that drew you to apply?
I knew this course would be an intense few weeks of classroom and lab training of powerful techniques for studying the contribution of ion channels to neuron functionality, which is at the core of my research goals. Attending a CSHL course is an amazing opportunity because they bring together experts from all over the world to instruct and lecture.

What and/or how will you apply what you’ve learned from the course to your work?
The research techniques I have learned -- such as cultured cell, tissue slice and in vivo patch-clamp electrophysiology -- has helped me to exploit my expertise of generalized ion channel regulation towards answering questions within the field of neuroscience. Each of these techniques I will need to study the relationship between ion channel activity and behavior of organisms.

What is your key takeaway from the Course?
This course is providing me with a clear understanding of how proper regulation of ion channels enables neural function and circuit formation, and the cutting edge techniques used to study these relationships.

If someone curious in attending the Ion Channels in Synaptic and Neural Circuit Physiology course asked you for feedback or advice on it, what would you tell him/her?
I highly recommend this experience to all students at the beginning of their research careers. In a very short amount of time, I successfully mastered difficult experimental techniques and learned the scientific foundation of my new field of study. I hope to attend several other courses during my postdoctoral training.

What do you like most about your time at CSHL?
The extremely knowledgeable instructors and guest speakers were very kind and excited to be here. It is such a fun and collegial atmosphere, which I'm sure I will take with me to my postdoctoral university.

Sheenah received funding support from her PI’s National Science Foundation (NSF) NeuroNex grant. On behalf of Sheenah, thank you to NSF for supporting and enabling our young scientists to attend training course where they expand their skills, knowledge, and network.

Thank you to Sheenah for being this week's featured visitor. To meet other featured scientists - and discover the wide range of science that takes part in a CSHL meeting or course - go here.

Visitor of the Week: Sofia Beas

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Meet Sofia Beas of National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Under the mentorship of Mario Penzo, Sofia is part of the Unit on the Neurobiology of Affective Memory. The postdoctoral fellow is on campus attending her first course at CSHL: Ion Channels in Synaptic and Neural Circuit Physiology

What are your research interests? What are you working on?
My research interests are on understanding the neural mechanisms underlying motivational and affective behaviors, and how they can be dysregulated in pathological conditions. In particular, I am studying the neural mechanism by which stress impacts the neurocircuitry of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, an area of the brain important for linking stress detection to the emergence of adaptive behavioral responses to stress.

How did you decide to make this the focus of your research? 
I first became captivated with the area of psychology and human behavior during my undergraduate career. However, when it came time to apply to doctoral programs, I soon realized that the neuroscience field was a better fit for me as it combined the two fields I really enjoyed: behavior and science.  

How did your scientific journey begin? 
The neuroscience field fascinated me early in my undergraduate career. While working under the guidance of Dr. Laura O’Dell,  I received an undergraduate fellowship that allowed me to work full time in her lab and fully immerse myself in the neuroscience field. Thereafter, while pursuing my PhD, I joined the lab of Dr. Jennifer Bizon who mentored and gave me unbelievable opportunities that furthered my education.  

Was there something specific about the Ion Channels in Synaptic and Neural Circuit Physiology course that drew you to apply?
Since my current research interest relies heavily on using electrophysiology techniques, I applied to the course to gain exposure using different electrophysiology techniques and to learn from the experts in the field.  

What and/or how will you apply what you've learned from the course to your work? 
So far, I have learned that electrophysiology can give you a wealth of information about how neurons communicate. This technique can help decode intercellular and intracellular messages, and investigate the specific ion channels, membrane potentials, and molecules that give each neuron its physiological characteristics. Also, I will impart my new knowledge base to my fellow lab mates so they too will benefit from the electrophysiology techniques I learned at this course.  

What is your key takeaway from the course?
My key takeaway is the individualized advice on specific techniques imparted by the experts in the field. For example, Matthew Xu-Friedman gave a very interesting and insightful lecture about mEPSCs which included fun examples that really brought the point home. He also sat next to me during a lab session and imparted useful advice on how to make the recordings better. These are particularly useful because, immediately upon returning to the lab, I plan to record mEPSC from neurons.

If someone curious in attending this course asked you for feedback or advice on it, what would you tell him/her?
First, so as to easily grasp the concepts taught, I would recommend getting acquainted with the basic concepts of electrophysiology. Next, I would suggest that they come with an open mind and the mindset that this is an intensive program, yet very rewarding nonetheless. 

What do you like most about your time at CSHL?
I like several things. First, I love the place, the campus is beautiful. I also like the friendships I have developed with those in the course. Finally, I must say that the food at the dining hall was quite good. 

Sofia received a scholarship from the Helmsley Charitable Trust and funding from the Society for Neuroscience’s (SfN) Neuroscience Scholars Program to cover a portion of her course tuition. On behalf of Sofia, thank you to the Helmsley Charitable Trust and SfN for supporting and enabling our young scientists to attend a CSHL course where they expand their skills, knowledge, and network.

Thank you to Sofia for being this week's featured visitor. To meet other featured scientists - and discover the wide range of science that takes part in a CSHL meeting or course - go here.

A Word From: Nicolas Wanaverbecq & Annalisa Scimemi

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Last week, we spoke with co-instructors from Ion Channels in Synaptic and Neural Circuit Physiology course, Nicolas Wanaverbecq (soon to be starting a group at the Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone) and Annalisa Scimemi. Both share great insight into how the course remains at the forefront of technology while maintaining its core training ideology, and give a glimpse into the course by outlining a day in the life of an Ion Channels trainee. Nicolas and Annalisa also offer sage advice on how future applicants can increase their chances of being selected for the course. Given the Ion Channels course is highly competitive – accepting only 20% from its 2017 pool of applicants – their advice is worth its weight in gold.

Nicolas: The course is three weeks long. The first couple of days consist mainly of lectures given by instructors on the basics of electrophysiology, ion channels, and physiology of excitable cell and their implications for the function of neural circuits. Then we bring in invited lecturers to speak on specific topics. Each lecturer gives two talks during the morning half of the day: a didactical one followed by a talk on their research. We then take a lunch break after which we brief the students on the afternoon’s lab session, where they will work on the topic that was discussed in the morning. So the afternoons and evenings are spent recording from neurons and analyzing the results. Every day we cover a different, major topics ranging from single ion channels to synapses, using in vitro and in vivo experimental preparations. 
Annalisa: I like the lecturer format Nicolas mentioned. Sometimes the first part of a lecturer’s talk describes papers published in the 50’s and 70’s and then switches gears to discuss a 2017 approach to address more sophisticated questions. I appreciate the approach of looking back and looking forward within the same three hours of a morning, because it allows you to realize how much we have progressed but also how much is still unknown about some fundamental mechanisms of brain function. 
Nicolas: We ask our lecturers to stay at CSHL for as long as possible so they can interact with and help students in the lab. This gives students the chance to talk with prominent scientists in a very laid back atmosphere. Also, every night we have “Chalk Talks” where two students each give a five-minute talk on their project - what they do, why they applied for the course, and how they and their project will benefit from it.

Given their participation in the course over the last several years – Nicolas has been part of the training staff since 2013 and Annalisa was a teaching assistant in the early 2000’s – we discussed the curriculum of the course and specifically how it has changed to stay current with the evolving field.

Nicolas: The main philosophy hasn’t changed. Our goal is for the students – who are mostly unfamiliar with electrophysiology and ion channels physiology – to understand the concepts of electrophysiology and neuronal activity. Students get a general picture of neuronal activity, how to record and study it so they are able to return to their labs with a general "tool kit" to solve problems and carry out their experiments using what they learned. This philosophy has worked quite well and has been a constant in the course. 
Annalisa: The techniques may have changed but the spirit of the course hasn’t. It’s good that some techniques change because it means we’re teaching the state of the art. The conceptual approach — the rigor in which you have to perform your experiments, your attention to details, and the effort to squeeze information out of your recordings — is definitely there. 
Scientifically, I think the field has become more multidisciplinary. It’s a source of excitement and challenges because many of us were trained in just one of the many disciplines that we need to know right now. I personally like the new developments in imaging and quantitative approaches. Every day, there’s something new to learn, and that’s a humbling exercise that keeps me motivated.
Nicolas: I totally agree. I’m very interested in the development of transgenic approaches and viral infection to selectively target and manipulate neurons. They enable us to perform electrophysiological recordings from an identified population of neurons while analyzing their morphological and anatomical properties. This approach combines function with connectomic approaches – identifying how cells talk to each other as well as which cells talk to each other. 

We then asked them for advice they would offer to those interested in attending a future iteration of the course: 

Annalisa: Think about your scientific questions and how they can be complementary to the topics historically treated in the course. And, to those whose applications were not accepted, I would say try again. A part of science is being persistent, and not being accepted one year doesn’t mean you weren’t good. Maybe the pool of applicant was just very big that year. Also, keep doing your good science. It’s not a sprint run but a marathon.
Nicolas: We evaluate applications by making sure the personal statement shows an applicant’s motivation, how the Ion Channels course will be useful for them and for their project, and what aspect of their research will be improved with a technique we cover. We also look at an applicant’s background and originality of their project. If an applicant, let’s say, has a non-electrophysiological background but intends to add these techniques to their research, we would consider his/her application as well. The course is very competitive. We accepted only 12 students out of 60 applicants this year to maintain a 1:2 ratio of students to instructor/TA. With twelve students, we are able to follow them through the course and make it as efficient as possible for them.

Our chat winded down with both co-instructors sharing their personal experiences with the course and the benefits all parties gain from it:  

Annalisa: It’s useful to think about what has happened to people who took the course in the past and where they are now. In the past, I was a TA in this course with students who have now established themselves as individual investigators. When you attend as a student, you’re surrounded by friends who will become your colleagues in a few years. It’s an opportunity to form bonds that will last a lifetime. Cold Spring Harbor is one of the few places that offers this kind of opportunity, so it’s a privilege to be here as a student, a co-instructor, and as part of the community in general. So I definitely would encourage anyone to take this chance of a lifetime. 
Nicolas: Personally, I enjoy the connections made. Through the course, I have the opportunity to talk with students who have a real interest and curiosity for the field. I’m enthusiastic to share my knowledge and help young scientists grasp the techniques as best I can. It’s also interesting to meet fellow scientists, discuss our research, and set up future collaborations. Another benefit is the potential to meet and discover candidates for future postdoc openings. I think it’s bilateral – as much as the students benefit from meeting established scientists, we benefit from meeting them, getting to know them, and seeing how they work. 

Thank you to both Nicolas and Annalisa for taking the time to chat with us. For more conversations with our other meeting organizers and course instructors, go here. Also, to gain a trainee's perspective on the Ion Channels course, read our Q&A with Aalok Varma

Visitor of the Week: Aalok Varma

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Meet one of our featured visitors this week, Aalok Varma of the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS) in Bangalore, India. The second year graduate student, a member of Vatsala Thirumalai's Neural Circuits and Development Lab, is on campus for our annual Ion Channels in Synaptic and Neural Physiology course. High in energy and spirit, Aalok mentioned how much he has already learned in the first week and appreciated learning new techniques and perspectives brought on by the course. Here is what else Aalok had to say: 

What are your research interests? What are you working on?
My lab works on understanding how the nervous system controls movement and how these systems develop, using zebrafish as our model organism. My own project in the lab is about understanding the contribution of different synapse types to behavior and development.

Was there something specific about the Ion Channels in Synaptic and Neural Circuit Physiology that drew you to apply? 
I applied to this course not only to get exposure to the use of electrophysiology in neuroscience in a way that goes beyond the scope of my research, but also to get to meet and learn from experts and contemporaries alike.

What is your key takeaway from the Ion Channels course?
As of now, I think my key takeaway from the course is that a healthy competition (and timely guidance, of course) make doing difficult experiments and learning tough techniques a rather fun experience.

How many CSHL courses have you attended?
This is my first visit to CSHL and I certainly hope to attend other courses here in the near future! 

If someone curious in attending this course asked you for feedback or advice on it, what would you tell him/her?
The course is definitely intense, but has been rewarding within just a short time span of a week (and we have two more to go that I'm really looking forward to!). So, I'd recommend that you apply if you are interested in neuroscience. Also, the course does offer financial support if you need it, so don't let financial considerations prevent you from sending in an application.

What do you like most about your time at CSHL?
Several things, I'd have to say. The scenic backdrop, for one - it's not often that there's a beach in the backyard of a laboratory complex! I like the camaraderie we've developed among ourselves at the course, despite the many ups-and-downs of lab work. And lastly, I'd have to say that I really like the coffee here! 

Aalok's attendance and travel to the Ion Channels course were funded by the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and Infosys Travel Award, respectively. Special thank you to IBRO and Infosys for supporting and enabling our young scientists where they expand their skills, knowledge, and network. 

If you're a neuroscientist in a developing country interested in attending a neuroscience-related course, make sure to check the financial support we have available for you here.  

Also, thank you to Aalok for being this week's featured visitor. To meet other featured scientists - and discover the wide range of science that takes part in a CSHL meeting or course – go here.